offending from childhood to late middle age recent results from the cambridge study in delinquent development springerbriefs in criminology

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Offending From Childhood To Late Middle Age

Author : David P. Farrington
ISBN : 9781461461050
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 59. 86 MB
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Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age is a timely volume by leading researchers in Life Course Criminology, which reports new findings from The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8 in 1961. The main aim of the study is to advance knowledge about criminal careers up to age 56. At the time of these most recent findings, forty-two percent of the males were convicted, with an average ten-year conviction career. Only seven percent of the males accounted for half of all convictions. Almost all of the males (93 percent) reported committing an offense in four age ranges, compared with 29 percent who were convicted at these ages. There were on average of 39 self-reported offenses per conviction. Group-based trajectory analyses indicated that, while there were distinct groups of offenders who followed different age-crime trajectories between ages 10 and 56, five groups best characterized the criminal careers of the men, with two groups, high adolescence peak and high rate chronic, exhibiting the most offending. Also, the offending trajectories were predicted by individual and environmental childhood risk factors, with the most chronic offenders (to age 56) having the most extreme scores on childhood risk. Based on these results, risk assessment instruments could be developed and risk-focused prevention could be implemented in early childhood, including parent training, pre-school intellectual enrichment programs and home visiting programs, in order to prevent chronic styles of offending from being initiated. This work will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, especially those with an interest in life course criminology and crime prevention, while also being of use as a research framework for other studies.​ It will also be of interest to researchers in sociology, psychology, and other social sciences, as well as policy makers and practitioners. “This is a ‘must read’ for anyone seeking to understand the development and course of crime from childhood through adulthood. Comparative analyses of officially recorded and self-reported offending and analyses of the predictive power of childhood risks to distinguish offending trajectories are important contributions of this new milestone in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.” J. David Hawkins, Ph.D., Endowed Professor of Prevention, Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, University of Washington “For more than four decades the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development has been a guiding light for research on what has come to be called developmental criminology. This latest installment is still another demonstration of the importance of this seminal study.” Daniel S. Nagin, Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University

Female Delinquency From Childhood To Young Adulthood

Author : Rolf Loeber
ISBN : 9783319480305
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 64. 71 MB
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This Brief fills a gap in criminological literature, as there are few empirically-based studies on delinquency of adolescent girls. It provides results of a longitudinal study, The Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS), which includes 2,451 girls, followed annually from age 10-19, the ages when criminal behavior tends to emerge. This study provides the most extensive and comprehensive investigation into the criminal offending and self-reported trajectories of offending of PGS participants, along with an in-depth examination of other criminal career dimensions. In five chapters, this short volume reviews the limited extent of girls' delinquency literature, presents data on girls' offending patterns (onset, persistence, specialization, and desistence), provides insights on gender differences by comparison with the Pittsburgh Youth Study, which focused on male offenders, and explores the theoretical and practical implications of the results. By understanding the origins and onset of criminal behavior in girls, researchers can begin to understand effective interventions and crime prevention. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public policy, and psychology.

Offending From Childhood To Young Adulthood

Author : Wesley G. Jennings
ISBN : 9783319259666
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 29. 6 MB
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This Brief examines criminal careers by providing the most extensive and comprehensive investigation to date on the official offending, self-reported offending, and trajectories of offending of the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS) participants. The PYS is a longitudinal study, which was initiated in 1987, and involves repeated follow-ups on several community cohorts (starting in grades 1, 4, and 7) of inner-city boys in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This Brief covers the Youngest and Oldest PYS cohorts (which had the most follow-up and most data available) from ages 10-30. It provides the most complete descriptive analyses of the criminal careers of these males to date. The three cohorts are commonly referred to as the Youngest, Middle, and Oldest cohorts, respectively. Consistent with several prior publications with the PYS data (Loeber et al., 2008), this book focuses only on data from the Youngest and Oldest cohorts as these cohorts were followed up the most frequently and have the longest time window of data available. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as related fields like Sociology, Developmental Psychology, Social Policy, and Education.

Colonizing The Body

Author : David Arnold
ISBN : 0520082958
Genre : History
File Size : 41. 49 MB
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In this innovative analysis of medicine and disease in colonial India, David Arnold explores the vital role of the state in medical and public health activities, arguing that Western medicine became a critical battleground between the colonized and the colonizers. Focusing on three major epidemic diseases--smallpox, cholera, and plague--Arnold analyzes the impact of medical interventionism. He demonstrates that Western medicine as practiced in India was not simply transferred from West to East, but was also fashioned in response to local needs and Indian conditions. By emphasizing this colonial dimension of medicine, Arnold highlights the centrality of the body to political authority in British India and shows how medicine both influenced and articulated the intrinsic contradictions of colonial rule.

Best Practices For The Mentally Ill In The Criminal Justice System

Author : Lenore E.A. Walker
ISBN : 9783319216560
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 44. 78 MB
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This timely brief resource introduces a new evidence-based model for treatment of mentally ill individuals in jails, with emphasis on community-based options. Forensic mental health experts review police alternatives to arresting mentally ill persons in confrontations, the efficacy of problem-solving courts, and continuity of care between jail and community. The book's best-practices approach extends to frequently related issues such as addiction, domestic violence, juvenile considerations, and trauma and describes successful programs coordinating judicial and clinical systems. These guidelines for decriminalizing non-violent behaviors and making appropriate services available to those with mental problems should also help address issues affecting the justice system, such as overcrowding. Included in the coverage: The Best Practices Model. Best practices in law enforcement crisis interventions with the mentally ill. Problem-solving courts and therapeutic jurisprudence. Competency restoration programs. A review of best practices for the treatment of persons with mental illness in jail. Conclusions, recommendations, and helpful appendices. With its practical vision for systemic improvement, Best Practices Model for Intervention with the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System is progressive reading for practitioners in the mental health field, especially practitioners working with inmates, as well as for stakeholders in the law enforcement and justice systems.

Community Oriented Policing And Technological Innovations

Author : Georgios Leventakis
ISBN : 9783319892948
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 66. 25 MB
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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Intergenerational Transmission Of Child Maltreatment

Author : Lisa Schelbe
ISBN : 9783319438245
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50. 24 MB
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This accessible resource coordinates what we know about the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM), with a specific focus on prevention in context. Cutting through facile cause-and-effect constructs, the authors review and critique the recent literature on the complicated nature of the phenomenon and weigh different approaches to its conceptualization. The book identifies child and parental risk factors linked to ITCM as well as protective factors involved in its reduction, while examining complex relationships between family, parenting, and social contexts that can provide keys to understanding and healing traumatized families. This close attention to crucial yet often overlooked details will aid professionals in creating the next wave of salient research projects and effective interventions, and enhance current efforts to break longstanding patterns of abuse and neglect. Among the topics covered: • Theoretical frameworks conceptualizing intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Empirical studies on intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Risk factors associated with ITCM.• Protective factors associated with breaking the cycle of maltreatment.• Methodological challenges in studying ITCM.• Recommendations for evaluation of intervention and prevention strategies. Geared toward novices and veterans alike, Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment is a solution-focused reference of singular importance to practitioners and research professionals involved in improving children’s well-being.

Most Cited Scholars In Criminology And Criminal Justice 1986 2010

Author : Ellen G Cohn
ISBN : 9783319012223
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75. 93 MB
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​​ ​This brief examines the influence and prestige of scholars and works in the field of Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as changes in influence and prestige over a period of 25 years, based on citation analysis. Methods of measuring scholarly influence can be highly controversial, but the authors of this work clearly outline their methodology, developed over years of experience working with this area of study. Through their expertise in Criminology and Criminal Justice, they are able to solve problems that affect or confound many traditional forms of citation analysis, such as irregularly cited references or self-citations. It includes 25 years of data (1986 through 2010) on the most-cited scholars and works in major American and international Criminology and Criminal Justice journals, and provides an objective measure of influence and prestige. Through an analysis of the data, the authors also document the intellectual development of criminology and criminal justice as a field of study since 1986. They highlight the development of research trends and indicate areas for future research. This book is designed for use by scholars and academics in the fields of Criminology and Criminal Justice, and the methodology will be of interest to researchers in related disciplines, including Sociology and Social Psychology. -- Cohn, Farrington, and Iratzoqui provide an invaluable service in unpacking the criminological enterprise. Using systematic citational analysis, they illuminate the core patterns of scholarly influence that have shaped the field’s development. This volume is an essential resource for all those wishing to understand which scholars and writings have done most—within and across time periods—to affect thinking about crime and justice. Francis T. Cullen Distinguished Research Professor University of Cincinnati - Citation analyses have become one of the most significant measures of scholarly influence. They are especially useful for revealing major trends over time regarding authors and the topics of interest to the wider field. Cohn, Farrington, and Iratzoqui's Most Cited Scholars in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 1986-2010 provides the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of scholarly influence in criminology/criminal justice. This resource is a most interesting read, one that supplies not a mere counting of citations but clear ideas about where the field has been centered and where it is trending into the future. Alex R. Piquero Ashbel Smith Professor of Criminology University of Texas at Dallas

The Web Of Violence

Author : Sherry Hamby
ISBN : 9789400755963
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 55. 69 MB
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There is an increasing appreciation of the interconnections among all forms of violence. These interconnections have critical implications for conducting research that can produce valid conclusions about the causes and consequences of abuse, maltreatment, and trauma. The accumulated data on co-occurrence also provide strong evidence that prevention and intervention should be organized around the full context of individuals’ experiences, not narrowly defined subtypes of violence. Managing the flood of new research and practice innovations is a challenge, however. New means of communication and integration are needed to meet this challenge, and the Web of Violence is intended to contribute to this process by serving as a concise overview of the conceptual and empirical work that form a basis for understanding the interconnections across forms of violence throughout the lifespan. It also offers ideas and directions for prevention, intervention, and public policy. A number of initiatives are emerging to integrate the findings on co-occurrence into research and action. The American Psychological Association established a new journal, Psychology of Violence, which is a forum for research on all types of violence. Sherry Hamby is the founding editor and John Grych is associate editor and co-editor of a special issue on the co-occurrence of violence in 2012. Dr. Hamby also is a co-investigator of the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), which has drawn attention to polyvictimization. Polyvictimization is a focus of the U.S. Department of Justice’s Defending Childhood Initiative and has recently been featured in calls for grant proposals by the Office of Victims of Crime and National Institutes for Justice.

Criminological And Criminal Justice Research Methods

Author : Wesley G. Jennings
ISBN : 9781454833062
Genre : Law
File Size : 49. 8 MB
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This book was written for the many criminology and criminal justice students who are skeptical that research methods will be relevant to their future careers as police or parole officers or defense or prosecuting lawyers. Understanding research goals and methods is essential to successful and effective work in these fields, and this engaging, direct, and, at times, humorous text demonstrates that importance and helps prepare students for that effectiveness and success. Jennings and Reingle offer clear, practical introductions, with extensive, compelling examples, to the essential classical research methods, including ethics, measurement, surveys, secondary data analysis, and sampling, along with emerging new approaches, such as case-control and longitudinal designs and experiments in criminology and criminal justice settings. With its focus on research design, this text provides the information most useful to students as future research consumers, rather than specialized analysts, of research data. The authors' scenario-based treatments of real-world situations and applications facilitate understanding of the full range of criminological and criminal justice research methods and illustrate the usefulness of that understanding for implementing and employing evidence-based policies in whatever agencies or roles students work in or engage with in their future careers. Criminological and Criminal Justice Research Methods offers: A dynamic, authoritative author team professionally involved in theoretical, methodological, empirical, and practical evaluations and applications of criminology and criminal justice research methods A practical, real-world focus on the methodologies most useful in daily criminal justice practice Comprehensive coverage of classical and cutting-edge criminological and criminal justice research methods, including ethics in research, measurement, survey construction and use, secondary data analysis, sampling, and experimental, longitudinal, case-control, and qualitative study design A separate chapter on and frequent, integrated references throughout the text to maintaining an ethical approach to treatment of participants and use of data Interesting, accessible, direct writing, with each chapter building on real-world scenarios to elucidate the nature and applications of research methods Extensive pedagogy in each chapter, from a summary of important concepts, definitions of key terms, and review questions to resources for more in-depth study, including lists of useful websites and references A full range of comprehensive, flexible instructional and learning materials online at

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