reef evolution

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Reef Evolution

Author : Rachel Wood
ISBN : 0198577842
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 1 MB
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If one does not understand the biology of the coral reef, one does not understand the reef at all. So, using more than 250 illustrations and specially drawn ecological reconstructions of reef communities, Rachel Wood provides a unique evolutionary approach to the understanding of ancient coral reef ecosystems. Marine organisms have aggregated to form reefs for over 3.5 billion years--creating the largest biologically constructed feature on earth, some visible from space. However, their study has been largely descriptive. Reef Evolution, documents the fundamental biological processes and innovations which have molded the evolution of reef ecosystems and given rise to the highly complex communities found today. The appearance of clonality, the acquisition of photosymbiosis, and the radiation of predator groups are all discussed in depth. Data from the fossil record documents the evolutionary development of reef ecosystems. Although reefs only occupy a small percentage of the oceans, their importance to the marine environment is many-faceted and global. They create harbors and allow the development of shallow basins with associated mangrove or seagrass communities; they protect coastlines from erosion; are involved in the regulation of atmospheric carbon, which in turn contributes to climate control. can provide extensive oil and gas reservoirs. From a biological standpoint, however, the great significance of reefs lies in their ability to generate and maintain a substantial proportion of tropical marine biodiversity. This unique interdisciplinary approach provides students and researchers in evolution, marine biology, ecology, paleontology, biodiversity, and geology with a text that will allow them to truly understand the biological innovations which have molded the evolution of coral reefs and given rise to the highly complex communities found today.

Coral Reefs

Author : Charles Darwin
ISBN :
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 77 MB
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CRITICAL INTRODUCTION. JOHN W. JUDD. CORAL-REEFS. INTRODUCTION. (PLATE: UNTITLED WOODCUT, WHITSUNDAY ATOLL.) (PLATE: UNTITLED WOODCUT, REEF AT BOLABOLA ISLAND.) (DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. PLATE I.—MAP SHOWING THE RESEMBLANCE IN FORM BETWEEN BARRIER CORAL-REEFS SURROUNDING MOUNTAINOUS ISLANDS, AND ATOLLS OR LAGOON ISLANDS.) CHAPTER I.—ATOLLS OR LAGOON-ISLANDS. SECTION 1.I.—KEELING ATOLL. (PLATE: UNTITLED WOODCUT, VERTICAL SECTION THROUGH KEELING ATOLL.) SECTION 1.II.—GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ATOLLS. (DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. PLATE II.—GREAT CHAGOS BANK, NEW CALEDONIA,MENCHIKOFF ATOLL, ETC. SECTION 1.III.—ATOLLS OF THE MALDIVA ARCHIPELAGO—GREAT CHAGOS BANK. CHAPTER II.—BARRIER REEFS. (PLATE: UNNAMED, THREE VERTICAL SECTIONS (WOODCUT DIAGRAMS): CHAPTER III.—FRINGING OR SHORE-REEFS. CHAPTER IV.—ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH OF CORAL-REEFS. SECTION 4.I.—ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL-REEFS, AND ON THE CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE TO THEIR INCREASE. SECTION 4.II.—ON THE RATE OF GROWTH OF CORAL-REEFS. SECTION 4.III.—ON THE DEPTHS AT WHICH REEF-BUILDING POLYPIFERS CAN LIVE. CHAPTER V.—THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF CORAL-REEFS. (PLATE: WOODCUT NO. 4. PLATE: WOODCUT NO. 5. STEP-FORMED LEDGES ROUND CERTAIN LAGOONS. THE RING OR BASIN-FORMED REEFS OF THE NORTHERN MALDIVA ATOLLS. SUBMERGED AND DEAD REEFS. THE DISSEVERMENT OF THE LARGER MALDIVA ATOLLS. IRREGULARLY FORMED ATOLLS. THE GREAT CHAGOS BANK. OBJECTIONS TO THE THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF ATOLLS AND BARRIER-REEFS. CHAPTER VI.—ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL-REEFS WITH REFERENCE TO THE THEORY OF THEIR FORMATION. (DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. PLATE III.—MAP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL-REEFS AND ACTIVE VOLCANOES. ON THE GROUPING OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF REEFS. ON THE DIRECT EVIDENCE OF THE BLUE SPACES IN THE MAP HAVING SUBSIDED DURING THE UPWARD GROWTH OF THE REEFS SO COLOURED, AND OF THE RED SPACES HAVING REMAINED STATIONARY, OR HAVING BEEN UPRAISED. ON THE ABSENCE OF ACTIVE VOLCANOES IN THE AREAS OF SUBSIDENCE, AND ON THEIR FREQUENT PRESENCE IN THE AREAS OF ELEVATION. ON THE RELATIONS OF THE AREAS OF SUBSIDENCE AND ELEVATION. RECAPITULATION. APPENDIX. CONTAINING A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE REEFS AND ISLANDS IN PLATE III. THE LOW ARCHIPELAGO. MENDANA OR MARQUESAS GROUP. COOK OR HARVEY AND AUSTRAL ISLAND. ISLANDS BETWEEN THE LOW AND GILBERT ARCHIPELAGOES. ISLANDS SOUTH OF THE SANDWICH ARCHIPELAGO. SANDWICH ARCHIPELAGO. SAMOA OR NAVIGATOR GROUP. FRIENDLY ARCHIPELAGO. ELLICE GROUP. GILBERT GROUP. MARSHALL GROUP. NEW HEBRIDES. SANTA CRUZ GROUP. NEW CALEDONIA. AUSTRALIAN BARRIER-REEF. LOUISIADE. SOLOMON ARCHIPELAGO. NEW IRELAND. NEW BRITAIN AND THE NORTHERN SHORE OF NEW GUINEA. ADMIRALTY GROUP. WESTERN PART OF THE CAROLINE ARCHIPELAGO. PELEW ISLANDS. BONIN OR ARZOBISPO GROUP. WEST END OF NEW GUINEA. CERAM. ISLANDS NEAR TIMOR. N.W. COAST OF AUSTRALIA. JAVA. MACASSAR STRAIT. SUMATRA. NICOBAR ISLANDS. ANDAMAN ISLANDS. PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. BABUYAN ISLANDS. INDIAN OCEAN. CHAGOS, MALDIVA, AND LACCADIVE ARCHIPELAGOES. SEYCHELLES. COMORO GROUP. MADAGASCAR. EAST COAST OF AFRICA. PERSIAN GULF. RED SEA. THE WEST COAST OF THE RED SEA BETWEEN LATITUDE 19 DEG AND 22 DEG. THE WEST COAST FROM LATITUDE 22 DEG TO 24 DEG. EASTERN COAST. WEST INDIES. YUCUTAN.

Dfg Schwerpunktprogramm Reef Evolution

Author : Fritz Neuweiler
ISBN : STANFORD:36105022207091
Genre : Paleontology
File Size : 30. 3 MB
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The Evolution Of Reef Communities

Author : J. A. Fagerstrom
ISBN : UCSD:31822002417624
Genre : Nature
File Size : 28. 62 MB
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Discusses the composition, structure, occurrence, and changes in reefs during the past 2 billion years. This is the only fully integrated treatment of these factors and processes with the evolutionary history of the organisms that have built reefs. Emphasizes the functional roles of major groups (guilds) of reef-building, reef-destroying, and reef-dwelling organisms in the most complex of all marine communities. A structural model, based on modern reef guilds, is developed. Then the functional roles of each major reef-building higher biologic taxon (algae, sponges, coral, etc.) is determined, and, on this basis, each such taxon is assigned to a reef community guild. Next, the author traces the geologic history and guild assignment of each major taxon through geologic time. The final chapter establishes a succession of ten major reef community types, and considers their extinction and recovery in the light of modern theories of cosmic and earthly events. Profusely illustrated.

Paleocene Reef Evolution On The Maiella Carbonate Platform Italy

Author : Adam Vecsei
ISBN : OCLC:441139059
Genre :
File Size : 48. 86 MB
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The Maiella platform provides and example of the innovation and evolution of coral-algal reefs during the Paleocene. After the dissapearance of rudist-dominated reefs around the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary, coral-algal reefs grew sealevel highstands in the Danian-Early Thanetian and Late Thanetian. The Danian-Early Thanetian reef communities are more diverse, and the constructional types more evolved than those previously known from this time. The Danian-Early Thanetian coral association differs from the Upper Thanetian association and from Upper Cretaceous coral faunas, undicating that it represents a distinct evolutionary phase. Repeated emergence of the Danian-Early Thanetian reefs resulted in a complex diagenetic history. All these Paleocene reefs were displaced by gravitative redeposition.

Evolution Of The Reef Coral Family Agariciidae Anthozoa Scleractinia In The Neogene Through Recent Of The Caribbean

Author : Thomas Albert Stemann
ISBN : UCSD:31822037177227
Genre : Nature
File Size : 40. 20 MB
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The History And Sedimentology Of Ancient Reef Systems

Author : George D. Stanley Jr.
ISBN : 9781461512196
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 51 MB
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From the Preface: The chapters of this book contain contributions from an international group of specialists. They address some important themes in both modern and ancient reef systems. Some chapters contain `snapshots' of reefs of particular intervals, while others touch on relevant themes of both modern and ancient reefs - themes that weave their way through reefs of all ages. This book opens and sets the stage with an introduction to both modern and ancient reefs and reef ecosystems. This chapter is also intended as a basic introduction for students, general geologists, and professionals or others who may be unfamiliar with reefs and reef ecosystems. The chapter addresses the living coral reef ecosystem, stressing among other relevant factors, the importance of ecological and physical interactions between the organisms and their environment. The chapter also addresses mass extinction and provides a general overview of the history of reefs.

The Ecology Of Fishes On Coral Reefs

Author : Peter F. Sale
ISBN : 9780080925516
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 22 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the ecology of coral reef fishes presented by top researchers from North America and Australia. Immense strides have been made over the past twenty years in our understanding of ecological systems in general and of reef fish ecology in particular. Many of the methodologies that reef fish ecologists use in their studies will be useful to a wider audience of ecologists for the design of their ecological studies. Significant among the impacts of the research on reef fish ecology are the development of nonequilibrium models of community organization, more emphasis on the role of recruitment variability in structuring local assemblages, the development and testing of evolutionary models of social organization and reproductive biology, and new insights into predator-prey and plant-herbivore interactions.

The Geomorphology Of The Great Barrier Reef

Author : David Hopley
ISBN : 9781139463928
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 68 MB
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This 2007 book reviews the history of geomorphological studies of the Great Barrier Reef and assesses the influences of sea-level change and oceanographic processes on the development of reefs over the last 10,000 years. It presents analyses of recently attained data from the Great Barrier Reef and reconstructions of the sequence of events which have led to its more recent geomorphology. The authors emphasise the importance of the geomorphological time span and its applications for present management applications. This is a valuable reference for academic researchers in geomorphology and oceanography, and will also appeal to graduate students in related fields.

Quaternary Coral Reef Systems

Author : Lucien F. Montaggioni
ISBN : 0080932762
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 36 MB
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This book presents both state-of-the art knowledge from Recent coral reefs (1.8 million to a few centuries old) gained since the eighties, and introduces geologists, oceanographers and environmentalists to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystem encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. Scleractinian reefs first appeared about 300 million years ago. Today coral reef systems provide some of the most sensitive gauges of environmental change, expressing the complex interplay of chemical, physical, geological and biological factors. The topics covered will include the evolutionary history of reef systems and some of the main reef builders since the Cenozoic, the effects of biological and environmental forces on the zonation of reef systems and the distribution of reef organisms and on reef community dynamics through time, changes in the geometry, anatomy and stratigraphy of reef bodies and systems in relation to changes in sea level and tectonics, the distribution patterns of sedimentary (framework or detrital) facies in relation to those of biological communities, the modes and rates of reef accretion (progradation, aggradation versus backstepping; coral growth versus reef growth), the hydrodynamic forces controlling water circulation through reef structures and their relationship to early diagenetic processes, the major diagenetic processes affecting reef bodies through time (replacement and diddolution, dolomitization, phosphatogenesis), and the record of climate change by both individual coral colonies and reef systems over the Quaternary. * state-of-the-art knowledge from Recent corals reefs * introduction to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystems encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. * authors are internationally regarded authorities on the subject * trustworthy information

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