the golden ticket p np and the search for the impossible

Download Book The Golden Ticket P Np And The Search For The Impossible in PDF format. You can Read Online The Golden Ticket P Np And The Search For The Impossible here in PDF, EPUB, Mobi or Docx formats.

The Golden Ticket

Author : Lance Fortnow
ISBN : 9781400846610
Genre : Computers
File Size : 36. 85 MB
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The P-NP problem is the most important open problem in computer science, if not all of mathematics. Simply stated, it asks whether every problem whose solution can be quickly checked by computer can also be quickly solved by computer. The Golden Ticket provides a nontechnical introduction to P-NP, its rich history, and its algorithmic implications for everything we do with computers and beyond. Lance Fortnow traces the history and development of P-NP, giving examples from a variety of disciplines, including economics, physics, and biology. He explores problems that capture the full difficulty of the P-NP dilemma, from discovering the shortest route through all the rides at Disney World to finding large groups of friends on Facebook. The Golden Ticket explores what we truly can and cannot achieve computationally, describing the benefits and unexpected challenges of this compelling problem.

The Golden Ticket

Author : Lance Fortnow
ISBN : 9780691156491
Genre : Computers
File Size : 55. 88 MB
Format : PDF
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Provides a nontechnical introduction to the P-NP problem in computing—which asks whether every problem than can be verified quickly by a computer can also be solved quickly by a computer—its rich history, and its algorithmic implications for everything we do with computers and beyond.

The Golden Ticket

Author : Lance Fortnow
ISBN : 0691175780
Genre : Computers
File Size : 38. 11 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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"The P-NP problem is the most important open problem in computer science, if not all of mathematics. The Golden Ticket provides a nontechnical introduction to P-NP, its rich history, and its algorithmic implications for everything we do with computers and beyond. In this informative and entertaining book, Lance Fortnow traces how the problem arose during the Cold War on both sides of the Iron Curtain, and gives examples of the problem from a variety of disciplines, including economics, physics, and biology. He explores problems that capture the full difficulty of the P-NP dilemma, from discovering the shortest route through all the rides at Disney World to finding large groups of friends on Facebook. But difficulty also has its advantages. Hard problems allow us to safely conduct electronic commerce and maintain privacy in our online lives.The Golden Ticket explores what we truly can and cannot achieve computationally, describing the benefits and unexpected challenges of the P-NP problem"--

In Pursuit Of The Traveling Salesman

Author : William Cook
ISBN : 9780691152707
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 55. 50 MB
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Covers the history, applications, theory, and computation of the traveling salesman problem right up to state-of-the-art solution machinery.

The P Np Question And G Del S Lost Letter

Author : Richard J. Lipton
ISBN : 1441971556
Genre : Computers
File Size : 70. 40 MB
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? DoesP=NP. In just ?ve symbols Dick Karp –in 1972–captured one of the deepest and most important questions of all time. When he ?rst wrote his famous paper, I think it’s fair to say he did not know the depth and importance of his question. Now over three decades later, we know P=NP is central to our understanding of compu- tion, it is a very hard problem, and its resolution will have potentially tremendous consequences. This book is a collection of some of the most popular posts from my blog— Godel ̈ Lost Letter andP=NP—which I started in early 2009. The main thrust of the blog, especially when I started, was to explore various aspects of computational complexity around the famousP=NP question. As I published posts I branched out and covered additional material, sometimes a timely event, sometimes a fun idea, sometimes a new result, and sometimes an old result. I have always tried to make the posts readable by a wide audience, and I believe I have succeeded in doing this.

Phase Transitions

Author : Ricard V. Solé
ISBN : 9780691150758
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 88. 5 MB
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Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of life, viral replication, epidemics, language evolution, and the emergence and breakdown of societies. Written at an undergraduate mathematical level, this book provides the essential theoretical tools and foundations required to develop basic models to explain collective phase transitions for a wide variety of ecosystems.

Good Habits For Great Coding

Author : Michael Stueben
ISBN : 9781484234594
Genre : Computers
File Size : 39. 91 MB
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Improve your coding skills and learn how to write readable code. Rather than teach basic programming, this book presumes that readers understand the fundamentals, and offers time-honed best practices for style, design, documenting, testing, refactoring, and more. Taking an informal, conversational tone, author Michael Stueben offers programming stories, anecdotes, observations, advice, tricks, examples, and challenges based on his 38 years experience writing code and teaching programming classes. Trying to teach style to beginners is notoriously difficult and can easily appear pedantic. Instead, this book offers solutions and many examples to back up his ideas. Good Habits for Great Coding distills Stueben's three decades of analyzing his own mistakes, analyzing student mistakes, searching for problems that teach lessons, and searching for simple examples to illustrate complex ideas. Having found that most learn by trying out challenging problems, and reflecting on them, each chapter includes quizzes and problems. The final chapter introduces dynamic programming to reduce complex problems to subcases, and illustrates many concepts discussed in the book. Code samples are provided in Python and designed to be understandable by readers familiar with any modern programming language. At the end of this book, you will have acquired a lifetime of good coding advice, the lessons the author wishes he had learned when he was a novice. What You'll Learn Create readable code through examples of good and bad style Write difficult algorithms by comparing your code to the author's code Derive and code difficult algorithms using dynamic programming Understand the psychology of the coding process Who This Book Is For Students or novice programmers who have taken a beginning programming course and understand coding basics. Teachers will appreciate the author's road-tested ideas that they may apply to their own teaching.

Mathematical Excursions To The World S Great Buildings

Author : Alexander Hahn
ISBN : 9780691145204
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 46. 36 MB
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Describes the mathematics behind the design of famous buildings, including the Parthenon, the Sydney Opera House, and the Bilbao Guggenheim.

Tychomancy

Author : Michael Strevens
ISBN : 9780674076020
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 99 MB
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Michael Strevens makes three claims about rules for inferring physical probability. They are reliable. They constitute a key part of the physical intuition that allows us to navigate the world safely in the absence of scientific knowledge. And they played a crucial role in scientific innovation, from statistical physics to natural selection.

Perfect Rigour

Author : Masha Gessen
ISBN : 9781848313095
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 37. 16 MB
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In 2006, an eccentric Russian mathematician named Grigori Perelman solved one of the world's greatest intellectual puzzles. The Poincare conjecture is an extremely complex topological problem that had eluded the best minds for over a century. In 2000, the Clay Institute in Boston named it one of seven great unsolved mathematical problems, and promised a million dollars to anyone who could find a solution. Perelman was awarded the prize this year - and declined the money. Journalist Masha Gessen was determined to find out why. Drawing on interviews with Perelman's teachers, classmates, coaches, teammates, and colleagues in Russia and the US - and informed by her own background as a math whiz raised in Russia - she set out to uncover the nature of Perelman's astonishing abilities. In telling his story, Masha Gessen has constructed a gripping and tragic tale that sheds rare light on the unique burden of genius.

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